Egypt is famous for its Pharaohs, the pyramids, and its ancient civilization. Egypt has some of the world’s most ancient and important monuments, including the Giza Pyramids and the Great Sphinx of Giza. The southern city of Luxor contains a particularly large number of ancient artifacts such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Today, Egypt is widely regarded as the main political and cultural centre of the Arab and Middle Eastern regions.
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a Middle Eastern country in North Africa. Egypt is geographically situated in Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula, east of the Suez Canal, connecting as a land bridge to Asia.
Covering an area of about 1,001,450 square kilometers (386,560 square miles), Egypt borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel and the Gaza Strip to the northeast; on the north and the east are the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, respectively.Egypt (Misr) is the sixteenth most populous country in the world. The vast majority of its 78.8 million population (2006) live near the banks of the Nile River (about 40,000 km² or 15,450 sq miles), where the only arable agricultural land is found.
Large areas of land are part of the Sahara Desert and are sparsely inhabited. About half of the Egyptian people today are urban, living in the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, the largest city in Africa and the Middle East, and Alexandria.